Archive for June, 2010

Is there a “Party” in your genes?

June 30, 2010

From: Political Research Quarterly

Contrary to the long held belief that the way we identify with political parties is the result of socialization factors, this recent research suggests instead that genetics play a crucial role in shaping our attitudes. The political identification concept is among the most studied in modern political science. This research encourages a fresh approach towards the nature versus nurture debate, since it now seems clear that both forces operate in tandem.  Recognizing the role of genetics enables a better understanding of human political behavior.

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Distance education for parents of children with autism found effective

June 29, 2010

The use of a self-directed learning program to provide introductory training in pivotal response treatment to parents of children with autism

From: Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions

Family members play a central role in the education and treatment of children with autism. This study reveals how the use of a self-directed learning program, mainly through the use of instructional DVDs, can offer an easier, more convenient and flexible way for parents to learn how to teach their child to communicate and improve their behavior. The feedback from participating parents was very positive and results indicate that parents did improve their skills and there were significant improvements in child behavior.

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Fewer headaches on the horizon thanks to latest guidelines

June 23, 2010

Guidelines for Controlled Trials of Drugs in Tension-Type Headache: Second Edition

From: Cephalalgia

If you’re one of the millions of headache sufferers around the world, more effective relief might be on the way in years to come. That’s because the International Headache Society has published new research guidelines intended to stimulate more research into headache treatment, and to provide researchers with guidelines to cut health risks associated with treatment.

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One third of NFL players with Achilles tendon injuries sidelined

June 23, 2010

Epidemiology and Outcomes of Achilles Tendon Ruptures in the National Football League

From Foot & Ankle Specialist

A quarter of all athletic injuries, irrespective of the specific sport or level of play, involve the foot and ankle.  Over recent years there has been a noted increase in Achilles tendon ruptures and this study observes within the USA National Football League (NFL) how serious the consequences can be. This injury often proves to be a career-altering experience. More than a third of NFL players who sustained this injury were never able to return to professional play, those who did return experienced on average a greater than 50% reduction in their power rating.

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The success of failure: The paradox of performance pay

June 22, 2010

From Review of Public Personnel Administration

Although pay for performance seems theoretically and intuitively appealing and fair, the reality is very different for many.  It is claimed that “people tend to believe things they want to believe”. This article discusses how a system based on merit may in fact be seen as a punishment as it: can focus on the short term; encourage mediocrity; reduce creativity; promote self-interest; and destroy teamwork.

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Measuring the ideal parent

June 18, 2010

Defining and Measuring Parenting for Educational Success: A Critical Discourse Analysis of the Parent Education Profile

From American Educational Research Journal

To gain access to federal funding, family literacy and adult education programs are required to demonstrate evidence that participants have made gains on standardized educational tests. The Parent Education Profile (PEP) is one test now adopted across many states to measure parenting practices. However, this article highlights some of the flaws in having a single standard, which makes assumptions about the ideal parent based on values of wealth and class.

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Transport policies, automobile use, and sustainable transport: a comparison of Germany and the United States

June 17, 2010

From Journal of Planning Education and Research

Germany leads the way with effective transport policies. This report indicates that the US should look to Germany for successful strategies to achieve more sustainable transport. Policies play a role in shaping differences in car use; Germans use their cars half as often as Americans and are four times more likely to make a trip by transit, bicycle, or foot. There are growing global concerns that our dependence on cars means we are getting fatter, we are heavily polluting our environment, there is a growing amount of road congestion and traffic accidents and we rely too heavily on oil.

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Employee retirement: a review and recommendations for future investigation

June 16, 2010

From Journal of Management

By the year 2012, nearly 20% of the total U.S. workforce will be aged 55 years or older. And yet despite the obvious importance of retirement to our society, the last comprehensive review of employee retirement in the field of management and organizational science was published more than 20 years ago. This recent article published in the Journal of Management provides a summary of key theoretical and empirical developments in employee retirement research since the 1980’s.

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Forecasting distribution of Body Mass Index in the United States: Is there more room for growth?

June 2, 2010

From Medical Decision Making

Too many American children are already overweight and the worrying forecast is for child obesity rates to rise. While the unprecedented rise in body weight over the past two decades has been well documented, less attention is paid to future projections of the US population distribution of body mass index (BMI).  This study estimates that while levels of obesity will remain high but stable among US adults, on the contrary, continued growth in the prevalence of the highest BMI category for children is anticipated. These predictions can serve to be an integral component of policy assessments that target one of the causative factors of obesity.

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For better trade, give peace a chance

June 2, 2010

Trade and Conflict: Proximity, Country Size, and Measures

From Conflict Management and Peace Science

New research finds that contrary to the long argued idea that trade leads to peaceful relations between nations, actually peace allows trade to flourish. International trade’s effect on military conflict is one of the most important issues in international relations. The conclusions from this research suggest it is time for academics and policymakers to look beyond the naive claim that the cultivation of trade ties will always and everywhere produce a more peaceful world.

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