Archive for March, 2012

Who is willing to pay for science? Public perception and public funding

March 30, 2012

Who is willing to pay for science? On the relationship between public perception of science and the attitude to public funding of science

From Public Understanding of Science

This article examines the relationship between the general public’s understanding of science and the attitude towards public funding of scientific research. One of the main objectives of studies on the public perception of science has been the creation of an indicator of the social support for public policies aimed at promoting scientific research. The underlying premise is that the degree of knowledge has a considerable bearing on interest in science and its perception. Conclusions can be drawn from a substantive as well as a methodological conclusion. From a standard survey, it turns out to be difficult to predict an individual’s attitude towards financing. On the basis of the conclusions authors can suggest lines for future development of this area of research. If it is accepted that the support for public funding of scientific research is an important feature of the perception of science, the degree to which a variable contributes to identify the group of people in favour of public funding can be used as a criterion to select some of the questions to be included in future questionnaires.

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Why WikiLeaks’ bid for radical transparency failed

March 27, 2012

WikiLeaks: the illusion of transparency

From International Review of Administrative Sciences

The scale and significance of the 2010 WikiLeaks disclosures were overstated, according to this article. Analysis of the WikiLeaks debacle highlights four key reasons why radical transparency is hard to achieve, and why a technological fix alone will not achieve it.

Some regard the WikiLeaks disclosures of 2010 as evidence that conventional mechanisms for controlling government-held information are breaking down, heralding a new world of ‘radical transparency’. However, the editor argues that claims that old-style secrecy is over are an illusion, and that Wikileaks’ advocates have overstated their scale and significance. He is a proponent of stronger accountability and increased transparency, for diplomatic and national security institutions. However, he concludes that this will require hard work, rather than a technological fix. “A major difficulty with the WikiLeaks project is that it may delude us into believing otherwise,”

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Free access to journal articles to celebrate World Social Work Day

March 23, 2012

To mark World Social Work Day SAGE has opened access to some articles from key titles.

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Passionate love and sexual desire: A podcast

March 22, 2012

From Journal of Social and Personal Relationships

 

Relationship Matters Podcast Number 9 “Passionate Love”: Legendary Elaine Hatfield at the University of Hawaii at Manoa talks about passionate love and sexual desire.

 

 

Anticipated benefits of marriage by same-sex couples

March 20, 2012

Will marriage matter? Effects of marriage anticipated by same-sex couples

From Journal of Family Issues 


While UK headlines report the strong opposition from the church to legalizing same-sex marriage, this study looks at the benefits marriage  offers to all. It used online surveys to explore the anticipated impact of legalized marriage on partners in same-sex couples living in California. The data were gathered prior to the California Supreme Court decision in May 2008 legalizing same-sex marriage. Research consistently suggests that marriage can serve as a protective factor in that people who are married demonstrate superior levels of mental health compared with unmarried individuals and as the level of commitment increases in a relationship, the amount of well-being increases. Most of this research on the benefits of marriage has been conducted on heterosexual couples. Now, researchers are beginning to suggest that the benefits of marital status may apply to same-sex couples. Findings point to the possibility that having some legal legitimization of one’s union gives a couple an advantage, at least with respect to the stability of the relationship.

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Physical activity program leads to better behavior for children with ADHD

March 16, 2012

A Physical activity program improves behavior and cognitive functions in children with adhd: an exploratory study

From Journal of Attention Disorders

While children who suffer from attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) struggle with hyperactive-impulses and have trouble maintaining attention, this study found that a structured physical activity program may help to improve their muscular capacities, motor skills, behavior assessments, and the ability to process information.

“A main finding of this study is that both parents and teachers observed better behavioral scores in the physical activity group,” wrote the authors. “This could mean that positive effects of physical activity may occur in different settings of the children’s life.”

The authors monitored ten children with ADHD who were participating in the physical activity program three times a week and eleven different children with ADHD as part of a control group. “Considering the beneficial effect of physical activity participation on some important ADHD-related variables, schools and parents of children with ADHD should look to maximize opportunities for structured group physical activity in their children’s life.”

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Making sense of addiction terminology

March 15, 2012

Through a glass darkly: can we improve clarity about mechanism and aims of medications in drug and alcohol treatments?

From Journal of Psychopharmacology

This paper offers clarity and structure on confusing drug and alcohol addiction terminology for prescribers, users and regulators. It suggests that a better understanding of current treatments’ modes of action and targets would aid understanding in the addiction field. This should be coupled with clarity as to exactly which patient groups or symptom stages each treatment works upon. The authors discuss the differing uses of terms such as addiction and dependence, and outline the three main treatment avenues for addiction or dependence on drugs or alcohol.

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How the US armed forces shaped college football

March 8, 2012

America and the Garrison Stadium: How the US Armed Forces Shaped College Football

From
Armed Forces & Society

U.S. football fans might not realize the influence that the US military had in the widespread appeal of football. This study reveals that college football can credit the military for bringing the sport to the masses. Additionally, it explores how the impact of World Wars helped bring about issues such as payment of college athletes, which are still being debated.

The sport evolved from roots on the campuses of several elite Northeastern institutions to spread to the most popular sport in America took the impact of the military and most notably the First World War. Troops were in need not only of recreation, but also physical activity that would help them in their military training. Football became a favorite activity to meet both of these needs and thereby exposed more Americans to the sport than ever before. Competitions between military camps were widely followed and helped perpetuate the popularity of the sport.  After World War II, the establishment of the GI bill pushed these athletes to flood the universities and some were heavily recruited by football programs. This led to the NCAA establishing regulations on scholarships and restrictions of payment of athletes.

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Protest and politics at the Olympics

March 7, 2012

Not just the Games? Power, protest and politics at the Olympics

From European Journal of International Relations

This is another in our series of articles highlighting various aspects of Olympic Games to celebrate the countdown to 2012. The Olympic Games represent the largest regularly scheduled international gathering in the world. They serve as a natural venue where multiple and different levels of society can interact. The Games are an under-explored event in the study of international politics and represent one of the longest standing forums for global interaction that has evolved along with the international political environment. This article asks a series of related questions regarding the intersection of political protest and the Olympic Games and conducts a theoretical and empirical analysis of political protest activity surrounding the modern Olympic Games. The study recognizes that the Olympic games are so much more than a sporting event, but an important political, social, economic, and cultural phenomenon.

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