Archive for August, 2012

So!apbox editorial essays exploring the boundaries of strategic organization: 10th anniversary issue of SO!

August 30, 2012

10th anniversary So!apbox special issue

From Strategic Organization

The 10th anniversary of Strategic Organization marks a critical transition as a new editorial team takes over and the journal has solidified its position in the community. This special issue acknowledges the creation of the So!apbox editorial essays. These essays have always played an important role in providing a balance to the rigor of standard paper submissions and achieving the mission of integration. These essays release authors from the conservatism that defines the traditional review process and encourages them to explore the boundaries of the field and to pose important challenges that advance the field in ways that a traditional article cannot easily accomplish. Over the last 10 years, these essays have been among the most impactful pieces that SO! has published.

The 15 new essays in this anniversary issue authored by one or more members of SO!’s editorial board. In the tradition of prior essays, these clearly chart new waters in the field of strategic organization. They offer thoughtful, informed reflection on interdisciplinary bridges, research topics and directions, and methodological issues that they feel are critical to the further development of Strategic Organization – the journal and the field.

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The haunting spectacle of crystal meth: A media-created mythology?

August 29, 2012

From  Crime Media Culture 

Media-fuelled panics about drug use and drug control have occurred throughout the history of the modern press. This study examines the creation of current concerns about crystal methamphetamine (crystal meth) over the last decade, and how popular perceptions of drugs and drug users have been influenced by disproportionate and sensationalised alarmist media reporting. This movement can be seen as a case demonstrating the use of both propaganda and myth. The representation in the British mediahas created its own hyper-reality, influencing political debate, drug policy and public reaction. What is striking about the coverage of crystal meth, or ‘ice’ as it is commonly known, is that the media’s predicted epidemic in the UK has proved to be an exaggeration of mythic proportions. Quite simply, indicators measuring drug use in the UK suggest its use is almost non-existent.  This article has demonstrated that crystal meth represents a unique story.  The predicted arrival of an ‘ice age’ in Britain has not materialised. The article recognizes how the use of graphic visual images is pervasive in the24-hour, global, technology-driven, mobile, multi-mediascape and is even more significant in communicating the message and manipulating meaning.

It is concluded that the reality has become lost in the visual representation, and a hyper-reality of crystal meth use has been constructed in order to distract people from the veracity of social life and from more urgent socio-political issues. The haunting spectacle of crystal meth has become a central aspect of social order and culture; a ‘permanent opium war’ and an instigator of change.  The press has become the new battleground for this war on drugs.

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What went wrong at Winterbourne View (UK) that led to those with intellectual disabilities being neglected and abused?

August 28, 2012

Crash: What went wrong at Winterbourne View?

From Journal of Intellectual Disabilities

Despite significant investment of expertise and resources, it has remained remarkably difficult to maintain basic standards of good practice in many of the specialist services for those with intellectual disabilities in England. Indeed it seems to have been difficult to ensure that those who use these services can be protected from the most serious abuse and neglect. In 2011 a ‘Panorama’ television documentary raised the profile of unacceptable practice and indeed criminal abuse following the undercover filming of outrageous acts of cruelty in an independent hospital called Winterbourne View. This editorial represents a full year of reflection on these events and our consistent failure to maintain minimum standards in services and supports for people with learning disabilities. It focuses on the events at Winterbourne View and sees them as an inevitable  crash at the end of a journey. However it is also the story of the lives of many thousands of people with intellectual disabilities in the UK and beyond.

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Storytelling, leadership and all that jazz

August 23, 2012

Sensemaking and sensegiving stories of jazz leadership

From Human Relations

This article explores the role of storytelling as a means of sensemaking and sensegiving about organizing and leadership in jazz. In doing so authors seek to explain how jazz musicians and their leaders articulate their understanding of leadership and its influence on the organized action of creating jazz music.  Jazz was selected as the focus of this research because equivocality is central to its very essence, creating a particularly challenging environment for leaders. Further, the creation of jazz music commonly involves loose constellations of individuals in bands, whose membership is often rather unstable thus imposing high demands on the leadership of these groups. Drawing on contemporary interviews and archival data, authors explore how stories can be used as templates to guide jazz musicians’ sensemaking about the leadership of teams. This research illustrates the significance of the oral tradition of storytelling to the organization of jazz. It is shown how stories allow musicians to make and give sense about the nature of jazz, as well as what it is to be a jazz musician and/or leader.

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The power of music: Its impact on the intellectual, social and personal development of children and young people

August 22, 2012

From International Journal of Music Education

Recent advances in the study of the brain have enabled us to get a better understanding of the way that active engagement with music may influence other development.  This paper considers the effects of music on intellectual, social and personal development of children and young people. It outlines how extensive active engagement with music can induce cortical reorganization. This may produce functional changes in how the brain processes information. Processing of pitch in string players is characterized by longer surveillance and more frontally distributed event-related brain potentials attention. Drummers generate more complex memory traces of the temporal organization of musical sequences. Compared with non-musicians, string players have greater somatosensory representa­tions of finger activity, the amount of increase depending on the age of starting to play. Clearly, the brain develops in very specific ways in response to particular learning activities and the extent of change depends on the length of time engaged with learning. The extent of musical engagement and its nature will be a factor in the extent to which transfer can occur to other areas. This overview provides a strong case for the benefits of active engagement with music throughout the lifespan.

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Poorly-performing hand implants unacceptable says leading medical journal

August 21, 2012

Editorial

From Journal of Hand Surgery 

Poorly-performing medical implants have hit the headlines recently, and the trend looks set to continue. This journal issue homes in on the unacceptable performance of hand implants for osteoarthritis patients. Citing several recent studies, the editorial asks why these implants – which perform worse that certain hip replacement implants now deemed unacceptable – are still widely used.

The issue reports on a number of thumb arthroplasties – joint replacement operations at the base of the thumb. Patients who have received a de la Caffiniere implant can expect good long term outcomes following their surgeries. However, those whose joints were replaced with the Moje, Elektra and Pi2 thumb CMC joint implants have less to celebrate, according to the latest follow-up research.

Supported by notable research studies, the editorial suggests that failing Moje and Electra implants should be withdrawn, and while just one study on the Pi2 implant is insufficient to recommend withdrawal, the journal asks surgeons to use it with caution in future.

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Monsters, playboys, virgins and whores: Rape myths in the news media’s coverage of sexual violence

August 16, 2012

From Language and Literature

Much of the news media’s coverage of sexual violence perpetuates myths and stereotypes about rape, rapists and rape victims. It is common for the media in such cases to portray rapists as monsters, beasts or perverts and women as promiscuous. This study textually analyses newspaper accounts of three rape cases, two from the USA and one from the UK, each of which represents a different type of sexual violence, to ascertain whether or not they disseminate rape myths. In these cases the majority perpetuated rape myths: through victim blaming or the myth of the sociopathic rapist. In all three cases analysed, the impact of the attacks on the victims was largely overlooked, which had the effect of trivialising the crime. Media coverage can shape public opinion and reinforce stereotypes. The study recognizes the consequences of offering a misleading representation of sexual violence, it may influence the definition and understanding of rape by the public, police, and members of the court. This study concludes that in order to combat the problem of sexual violence, the news media must provide accurate examples of rape that do not fit preconceived notions or conform to myths. Only through doing so can the media begin to address the wider societal issues that contribute to this crime.

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Gentlemen prefer red: A profitable color for waitresses

August 15, 2012

Gentlemen patrons give more tips to waitresses with red clothes

From  Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research 

In many restaurants throughout the world, wait staff’s income depends largely on the tips received from customers. According to this study, male restaurant customers give higher tips to waitresses wearing red. In this study of 272 restaurant customers, researchers found not only that male patrons gave higher tips than female patrons in general, but that men gave between 14.6% and 26.1% more to waitresses wearing red, while color had no effect on female patrons’ tipping behavior at all. The researchers explained that previous research has found that red increases the physical and sexual attractiveness of women.

Eleven waitresses in five restaurants were instructed to wear the same tee shirt in different colors (black, white, red, blue, green, and yellow) on different days over a six-week period. The waitresses were instructed to act as they normally would to all customers and to record how much they received as a tip from each customer. The author wrote, “As red color has no negative effect on women customers, it could be in their interest to wear red clothes at work.”

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New study finds clients want real love from sex workers

August 14, 2012

The Intimacy prism: Emotion management among the clients of escorts

From Men and Masculinities 

While it is commonly believed that men who pay for sex are attempting to avoid emotional commitment, this study finds that men who become regular clients of sex workers often develop feelings of romance and love. “In recent years, we have come to see a gradual normalization of independent escort prostitution, where sexual encounters have come to resemble quasi-dating relationships,” stated the author. “Our study shows that regular clients of a particular sex provider often come to experience feelings of deep affection, which can progress into an authentic love story.”

This study analyzed 2,442 postings on an online discussion board from a sex provider review site where more than a million clients of sex workers read and post about their experiences. Approximately one-third included a discussion about emotional intimacy between sex workers and their clients, many of whom expressed a desire to grow their relationships beyond the physical level in the form of sharing private feelings and mutual love.

 

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Iz txt spk bad 4 U?: The relationship between text messaging and English grammar skills

August 9, 2012

Texting, techspeak, and tweens: The relationship between text messaging and English grammar skills

From New Media & Society

Throughout the world, cell phones have become omnipresent in classrooms, cafeterias, and hallways. This boom in popularity has led to diverse uses by adolescents. A 2010 report by the Nielsen Company found that American adolescent teens send more text messages than any other age group. This has led to an evolution in grammar, the basis of which we shall call ‘techspeak.’ This dramatic rise in popularity has led parents and teachers to question the effect of using this technology on adolescents’ understanding of English grammar during a developmentally critical period of language-skills acquisition. There is much debate among leaders in education, teachers, and parents as to the effects of techspeak on the grammar and writing skills of adolescents in the classroom setting.

This study considers if there is a causal link between text messaging adaptations and adolescent grammar. A survey was conducted to test the association between text message usage of students and their scores on an offline, age-appropriate grammar assessment test. The results of this study lend support to a general negative relationship between text messaging and adolescent grammar skills. The findings have many implications, especially in the classroom. Adolescents should be educated to understand the differences between techspeak and standard English grammar, recognizing that there is a time and a place for both forms of communication. It is impossible to stop techspeak entirely; indeed, it is a very useful form of communication when confined to places where formality takes a backseat to efficiency and speed. The study concludes that electronic technology usage for the purposes of teaching should be monitored to ensure that this does not allow adolescents to further habituate to using techspeak in the classroom.

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