Archive for the ‘Interpersonal/Domestic Violence’ Category

Effect of type and severity of partner abuse on women’s health, quality of life and help seeking

December 6, 2012

Effect of type and severity of intimate partner violence on women’s health and service use: Findings from a primary care trial of women afraid of their partners

From Journal of Interpersonal Violence

Intimate partner violence (IPV) has a major impact on women’s wellbeing. This article describes socio-demographic characteristics, experiences of abuse, health, safety, and use of services in women enrolled in the Women’s Evaluation of Abuse and Violence Care (WEAVE) project. The WEAVE project is the first family practice based trial testing the effect of screening plus intervention for IPV on women’s health and wellbeing. The study explores associations between type and severity of abuse and women’s health, quality of life, and help seeking.

The research finds women who were fearful of partners in the last year, have poor mental health and quality of life, attend health care services frequently, and domestic violence services infrequently. It outlines how health practitioners may need to tailor their care and messages to women’s experiences of type and severity of abuse. Exploration of the extent of abuse may allow practitioners to support women in choosing and accessing IPV-specific services appropriate to their safety needs and readiness to change.

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Threat of separation often the trigger for murder of collaterals such as children related to intimate partner conflict

October 26, 2012

Who died? The murder of collaterals related to intimate partner conflict

From Violence Against Women

Over recent years it has seemed far more common to read news headlines about collateral murders associated with intimate partner conflict, particularly a saddening trend of males killing their children and then committing suicide following partner conflict. Using data from the Murder in Britain Study, the authors of this paper focus on collateral murders including children, allies, and new partners. The research focuses on these three types of Intimate Partner Conflict Murders (IPCMs) and compare them to cases in which only the intimate partner was murdered. Qualitative data provide a characterization of the three types of collaterals, and quantitative data are used to compare characteristics of perpetrators. Unlike the other two collateral types, most of the child murders involved previous violence to the victim. In many cases the dynamics of child murder involved notions of sexual jealousy as the perpetrator targeted for violent abuse and eventually killed the child of a previous partner of the woman. The study suggests that for intimate partner murders as well as the collateral murder of allies and new partners, separation or threat of separation was often associated with a dynamic process in which the man “changed the project” from one oftrying to cajole or force his partner to remain/return to him to one directed at revenge, punishment, and annihilation for not doing so. Various disciplinary approaches are reflected in the research design, data collection, findings, and conclusions. The results have important implications for research, policy, and practice.

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When battered women fight back stereotyping can kick in

September 18, 2012

But most of all, they fought together’: Judicial attributions for sentences in convicting battered women who kill


From
Psychology of Women Quarterly

The topic of domestic abuse remains a controversial issue when it comes to determining punishment for battered women who use violence towards their partner. According to this study battered women who are seen as engaging in mutual violence and shared substance abuse are often regarded negatively and subject to harsher sentences.

The author analyzed the reasoning underlying judges’ sentencing decisions in 26 domestic homicide and abuse cases from 1974-2006 in Canada. She found that a judge’s reliance on each line of reasoning was associated with harsher sentencing. She also identified one judge who demonstrated resistance to these stereotyped portrayals of battered women who fight back. “Judges downgraded acts of previous partner violence by using minimizing descriptions and by emphasizing the mutuality of the violence and of substance abuse,” wrote the author. She asserted that legal systems need to recognize the complex psychological nature of victim mentality and behavior within domestic abuse cases.

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Examining the impact of the Family Violence Option on women’s efforts to leave welfare

January 18, 2012

From Research on Social Work Practice

In 1997, while reforming federal welfare programs, the U.S. Congress established the Family Violence Option (FVO) to prevent reforms from adversely affecting those welfare recipients who are domestic violence victims. This research investigated if known domestic violence victims, and in particular those who received an FVO waiver, remained on the welfare rolls longer and worked less than other welfare recipients, as many critics speculated. The study wanted to assess what difference the FVO, in practice, has made on women’s ability to leave welfare and find employment. Using administrative and interview data the findings do not indicate that FVO waivers encourage women to stay on welfare longer. However, the poor outcomes of undocumented victims indicate that some individuals may be slipping through the cracks of a well-intentioned policy.

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Women in prison: An issue of blaming the individual for social problems

November 17, 2011

Experiences of interpersonal violence and criminal legal control: a mixed method analysis

From SAGE Open

Researchers have long claimed that physical abuse and marginalization lead to criminal activity; however, women in prison are taught to overlook socioeconomic issues and blame only themselves for their behaviour.  This study confirms that there is a real connection between the type of abuse experienced by women, marginalization, and whether or not they will turn to drugs and criminal activity to cope with their experiences. The authors contend current psychiatric and popular discourse that portrays female incarceration as the result of poor choices and bad behavior “rather than identifying structural conditions that lead to imprisonment—including changes in laws, racist and sexist legislation, poverty, lack of resources and jobs, and social vulnerability over the course of one’s life.”  This study used surveys and interviews with incarcerated or formerly imprisoned women. Having few or no options because of their marginalized socioeconomic positions, entrenched racial inequality, and repeated episodes of violence, respondents indicated that criminalized activities became survival mechanisms, which led to incarceration. The authors point to institutional change and support systems for victims of abuse as a way to prevent female criminal activity.

 

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Violence costs an estimated $60 billion annually and remains in the top 10 causes of death

September 20, 2011

Special issue: Lifestyle Medicine, Public Health and Violence

From American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine

Suicide, child abuse, playground fights, gang violence, sexual assault, and domestic violence are just a few examples of violence that touch people in all walks of life and communities everywhere. Homicide and suicide remain in the top ten leading causes of death for people from birth to age 64. How do you combat an issue that takes so many forms and has so many causes? This special issue developed by The National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC) in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine takes a closer look at violence prevention. Because of the complexities surrounding violence, its impact on society is deep and multifaceted. Aside from the physical effects, which have prompted the American Medical Association to recognize violence as a health issue, there are also very real monetary effects. According to the American Journal of Preventative Medicine, the estimated annual cost of medical care and productivity lost because of violence each year is estimated at more than $70 billion. Considering violence prevention this article focuses particularly on efforts most relevant for health care providers outlining the integral role of clinicians.

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Minimizing the seriousness of rape through sexism and gender-role traditionality

September 9, 2010

Rape perception and the function of ambivalent sexism and gender-role traditionality

From Journal of Interpersonal Violence

This article examines the role of sexism and gender-role traditonality in minimizing the seriousness of rape. It recognizes how the perceptions and attitudes of others are important components of the victim’s recovery. In some cases, rape victims suffer not only from the actual assault but also from the negative reactions of the people around them. Cultural attitudes that promote false beliefs about rape and a hostile climate toward rape victims significantly contribute to negative perceptions.

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The consequences of accepting rape myths

September 2, 2010

Oppression through acceptance? predicting rape myth acceptance and attitudes toward rape victims

From Violence Against Women

Rape myths such as ‘only bad women get raped’ and ‘women ask for it’ serve to blame the victim and exonerate the rapist. As reported rapes in the United States increased at unprecedented rates in the late 1960s and the 1970s, many researchers began to investigate psychological aspects of rape, such as attitudes toward rape victims and beliefs about rape. Some studies found that likelihood to rape was correlated with men’s false beliefs that victims enjoyed it. This study examines the relationships among individuals’ acceptance of rape myths, their negative attitudes toward rape victims, and their general intergroup dominance and sex-based oppression.

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Links between animal cruelty and domestic violence

August 28, 2010

Is animal cruelty a “red flag” for family violence? investigating co-occurring violence toward children, partners, and pets

From Journal of Interpersonal Violence

This week in the UK a nation of animal lovers were horrified at the CCTV footage circulated on YouTube that caught a woman throwing a cat in a wheely bin. For all who cannot comprehend the motivation to perform such an act of cruelty this article may offer some clues as it examines links between animal cruelty and interpersonal violence. Such links have been recognized throughout history. This study highlights formal indications of support by policy makers for a link between animal- and human-directed violence through recent legislation. Several U.S. states have started to codify colloquial belief in these associations with the development of mandated cross-reporting systems for child protection and animal welfare agencies. The research considers if the identification of animal cruelty in a home may serve as a reliable red flag for the presence of child maltreatment or severe domestic violence.

 

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Violence in indoor and outdoor prostitution venues

August 10, 2010

From Violence Against Women

This article dispels the assumption that indoor prostitution activities in places such as brothels and massage parlors are safer than those conducted on the streets. The research argues against the depiction of indoor activities as harmless, and consensual. Surveys confirmed the shocking real risks of violence with 82% of all respondents reported being physically assaulted and 68% had been raped. Furthermore women indoors were frequently victims of sexual violence and being more at risk of being threatened with weapons. The article concludes by highlighting the need to integrate violence against women research into prostitution research, as this may go a long way toward understanding motivation and answering the question of why men batter.

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