Posts Tagged ‘gender’

The impact of spending cuts on women

January 22, 2013

Special Issue: Women and the local economy

From Local Economy

This Special Issue looks at the subject of gender, an important but often neglected issue in local economic development and takes the view that gender equality is a social justice issue and has significant implications for the way we conceive both the processes and outcomes of local economic development.

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Female employees benefit from a male CEO’s generosity when he becomes a father, particularly if the first child is a girl

December 5, 2012

Fatherhood and managerial style: How a male ceo’s children affect the wages of his employees

From Administrative Science Quarterly

Motivated by research suggesting that the transition to fatherhood influences a man’s values, this study examined how a male CEO’s newborn child affects the wages of his employees. It used the Database for Labor Market Research (IDA) as the source of data. The IDA contains demographic information on all firms, plants, and individuals in the Danish economy. The research found evidence not only that a male CEO generally pays his employees less generously after fathering a child, but also that this effect is moderated by the gender of the child as well as that of the employee. In particular, a male CEO pays both his female and male employees more generously after the birth of his first daughter and he pays his female employees more generously after the birth of his first child. Thus a female employee benefits doubly from the birth to her CEO of a first daughter who is also the CEO’s first child. It was revealed tmale CEOs tend to pay themselves more after fathering a child, especially if the child is a son. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that a male CEO tends to husband more resources for his own growing family after fathering a child as well as with the hypotheses that the first child activates the CEO’s generosity toward women and that the first daughter activates his generosity toward everyone. The study provides robust, albeit indirect, evidence that social preferences do play an important role in economic life. Future research could focus on different outcome variables, such as investment and acquisition behavior, diversification, competitive strategy, organizational culture, other human resources activities (e.g., hiring, promotion, and termination), and managerial cognition, as well as how a manager might anticipate changes to a competitor’s strategy as a result of changes to the family structure of the competitor’s CEO.

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A psychological analysis of how mothers construct fathers’ roles in childrearing and childcare

July 31, 2012

‘For me, the children come first’: A discursive psychological analysis of how mothers construct fathers’ roles in childrearing and childcare

From Feminism & Psychology 

Previous western studies have shown the division of domestic childcare work between fathers and mothers to be unequal but not always constructed as unfair. This study recognizes that gendered division of domestic labour persists. The paradox at the heart of this issue is that while both men and women support the idea of equality, they often see the unequal division of labour in their own household as fair.  In the cultural context in which this study is situated (educated, dual-career families in London), men have greater involvement in childcare than before, and most mothers go out to work; however the participants’ discussion around childrearing and childcare reflects some heavily gendered discourses available in society, discourses that help trap women in their existing condition. This study highlights the language mechanisms by which meanings are created, conveyed and negotiated. It represents a glimpse into the wealth of insight that discursive psychology has to offer on gendered power relations and inequality.

 

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Examining the traditions of marriage proposals and surname changes reveal we adhere to marriage-related norms in the name of tradition or romance

July 20, 2012

“Girls don’t propose! ew.”: A mixed-methods examination of marriage tradition preferences and benevolent sexism in emerging adults

From Journal of Adolescent Research

Throughout the past several decades, the United States has seen a steady increase in women’s status. Overt sexism is on the decline and women are becoming increasingly well represented in prestigious, high-paying jobs. Despite these welcome improvements, many gender-typed norms related to heterosexual courtship and marriage have remained remarkably stable over time. In this study analysis was used to explore how emerging adults explained their preferences for two marriage traditions: marriage proposals and surname changes. Findings from a survey of 277 suggest people typically adhere to marriage-related norms in the name of tradition or romance. The researchers sought to establish an empirical connection between women’s and men’s marriage tradition preferences and their level of sexism. The hope is that the findings will spur heightened attention to marriage traditions and other heterosexual romantic relationship practices that have the distinction of being both ubiquitous and seldom questioned.

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Women’s scientific achievements often overlooked and undervalued

May 15, 2012

The Matilda Effect in science: Awards and prizes in the US, 1990s and 2000s

From Social Studies of Science

This study reveals that when men chair committees that select scientific awards recipients, males win the awards more than 95% of the time despite the fact that women made up 21% of the nomination pools. It also reports that while in the past two decades women have begun to win more awards for their scientific achievements, compared to men, they win more service and teaching awards and fewer prestigious scholarly awards than would be expected based on their representation in the nomination pool. The researchers suggested some possible solutions to this problem such as increasing the proportion of female nominees for all types of scientific prizes, ensuring that women are well represented on prize committees, constantly reviewing award criteria to check for implicit bias, and establishing an oversight committee to maintain standards of equality.

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Does gender bias against female leaders persist?

February 28, 2012

Does gender bias against female leaders persist? Quantitative and qualitative data from a large-scale survey

From Human Relations

Although acceptance of female managers has increased in the last half-century, negative attitudes toward female leaders still persist. For example, some research suggests that female leaders are evaluated less favorably than their male counterparts, are liked less than their male counterparts, and are penalized for adopting masculine leadership styles. This study examined women and men’s evaluations of their current managers as well as their preferences for male and female managers, in general. In contrast to other research, the results here offer encouraging evidence of changing attitudes toward female leaders, with a growing acceptance of female leaders, and serve as a reminder that stereotypes are less likely to be applied when sufficient individuating information is available.

Both the quantitative and qualitative results suggested that exposure to female bosses reduced bias against female leaders. There is optimism  that the stereotypes will be reduced or disappear, and over time, the traits required for successful leadership will be seen as gender neutral, rather than being seen as incongruous with the female role.
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Women more likely to recruit other women for political office

August 18, 2011

Informal Influences in Selecting Female Political Candidates

From Political Research Quarterly

Unlike the US, the nomination of party candidates for the Canadian Parliament is solely the prerogative of the local party associations, and local presidents are in a position to both formally and informally influence the nomination of candidates. This research looked at “party gatekeepers” (local party presidents) from the five major political parties in the 2004 and 2006 Canadian national elections and found an important relationship between the gender of party gatekeepers and who ultimately is nominated to run for office. They found; gatekeepers are more likely to directly recruit and promote people like themselves, the professional and social networks of women gatekeepers are more likely to include qualified women who would be suitable parliamentary candidates which increases the opportunities for direct recruitment of female candidates and sends an encouraging signal to potential female candidates that women are welcome and can be active in politics, creating a virtuous cycle of participation.

Abstract

The authors argue that the gender composition of party gatekeepers—those responsible for candidate recruitment— plays a crucial role in either encouraging or discouraging women candidates to run for office. Using an original data set that includes constituency-level information for all parties and candidates in the 2004 and 2006 Canadian national elections, the authors find support for this proposition. Women candidates are more likely to be nominated when the gatekeeper—the local party president—is a woman rather than a man. The results underline the importance of informal factors for understanding women’s political underrepresentation.

Read this research for free

Article details
Cheng, C., & Tavits, M. (2009). Informal Influences in Selecting Female Political Candidates Political Research Quarterly, 64 (2), 460-471 DOI: 10.1177/1065912909349631


“Feminizing” middle management in universities

August 16, 2011

“Feminizing” middle management? An inquiry into the gendered subtexts in university department headship

From SAGE Open

This article summarizes a number of issues emerging in a research in progress that is concerned with the analysis of university department headship from a gender perspective. It aims to adopt a cultural approach to the gender–organization relationship, making the gender subtexts in the cultural meanings underpinning life at university departments explicit. In this study 20 women talk about their experience as heads of departments at three different universities in the city ofBarcelona(Spain).

Most of these women depict their headship in terms of housecare and describe their role as managers by fallin back on the image of a housewife. This gender script implies a devaluation of middle management that stands in sharp contrast with images of empowerment and feminine leadership that literature on the topic normally portrays. In fact, most of these women hardly see themselves as leaders—at best, they exercise what might be called a “marginal leadership.”

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Misogyny in rap music

May 25, 2011

Misogyny in rap music: a content analysis of prevalence and meanings

From Men and Masculinities

Rap music is renowned for being misogynistic, but little research has investigated this dimension of the music. This study assesses the portrayal of women in a representative sample of rap songs, it outlines key themes in this music and considers what specific messages are conveyed. In comparison to other genres rap music stands out for the intensity and graphic nature of its lyrical objectification, exploitation, and victimization of women. This paper argues that changing the portrayal of women within this music requires deeper shifts, altering the conditions under which it is created: socioeconomic disadvantage and associated gender relations in local communities, the material interests of the record industry, and the larger cultural objectification of women and associated norms of hegemonic masculinity.

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Male Genital Mutilation: Beyond the tolerable?

September 21, 2010

From Ethnicities

This article aims to show that, if Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) warrants the serious attention of policy-makers, then so too, despite quantitative differences, does Male Genital Mutilation (MGM). FGM is viewed by many as marking the boundary of toleration. Regarded as a painful, injurious, medically unnecessary tool of sexual control, inflicted by coercive communities on vulnerable individuals. However Male circumcision is believed generally to be benign, uncontroversial and medically justified. To regard it as intolerable or ‘repugnant’ is, for many, ridiculous. The author aims to enable liberals to overcome, often justifiable, claims of ethnocentricity, in order to develop a consistent approach to harmful cultural practices. The author argues that it is inconsistent not to object to both – even if greater priority is given to opposing the more invasive forms of FGM.

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